Skin diseases: types, causes, symptoms, and treatment
The skin is the largest organ not only of the human body massage, but also of many mammals. The area of this organ exceeds the number of several square meters. In this regard, it is quite logical to say that skin diseases have more than a few dozen names.
The skin is responsible for preserving the internal organs from various external stimuli. This organ controls temperature, water balance, and various sensations. Based on this, we can say that protecting the skin from diseases is the main task of a person. Prevention of skin diseases plays a huge role in the mechanisms of internal organs.
In this article, we offer to get acquainted with such a phenomenon as dermatological skin diseases, photos of which will be presented below. We will look at each of the pathologies in detail, analyzing the causes of their appearance and characteristic symptoms. Before proceeding to the analysis of diseases, it should be mentioned that most of them are quite simple in therapy.
The skin is used to regulate temperature, water balance, and sensations, so protecting yourself from skin diseases is one of the primary preventive tasks
Causes of pathologies
There are many known causes that lead to the development of skin diseases. In medicine, they are divided into two large groups: internal and external manifestations. Before starting treatment, a dermatologist must determine the cause. Otherwise, you will only be able to eliminate the symptoms that will return again when the therapy is stopped.
Most often, the basis for the development of dermatological pathologies is a metabolic disorder in the human body. They can also appear as a result of hormonal failure, which is often found in adolescence. In such cases, the clinical manifestations are acne, rashes.
As a result of intestinal dysbiosis, when nutrients are absorbed in insufficient volume, skin diseases may appear. In addition, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, stress, weakened immunity, and infections lead to the appearance of skin pathologies. Heredity plays an important role. Dermatological diseases can manifest themselves in the form of allergic reactions in response to the effects of medications.
the Main causes of dermatological diseases that have arisen under the influence of an external pathogen are:
- chemicals-alkalis, salts, and acids;
- parasites-blood-sucking insects can become carriers of pathologies;
- radiation – x-rays, ultraviolet rays;
- high and low temperatures – burns or hypothermia;
- disease-causing microbes.
Boils in children are a skin disease caused by staphylococci. The presence of boils on the child’s body indicates serious disorders in the baby’s body.
- Mechanical effects (wearing too tight and out of size clothing).
- Non-compliance with hygiene rules (scratching the skin with dirty hands, rare change of diapers, irregular bathing).
- Improper nutrition of the child.
- Diseases of the endocrine and nervous systems of the baby.
- Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency.
The boil has its own stage of development, which is determined by the symptoms:
first there is a solid infiltrate with fuzzy borders, which gives pain.
On the periphery, around the boil, edema is formed, while the pain increases. After that, the boil itself is opened and purulent contents and a rod are released from it, which is formed from dead white blood cells and bacteria.
After that, the ulcer on the skin heals, leaving a scar.
All skin diseases can be divided into the following types:
infectious (candidiasis, pyoderma, and others) – the pathogen is pathogenic microbes that lead to the appearance of erosions, nodules, pustules, blisters, and sometimes scars remain on the skin;
fungal (ringworm, actinomycosis, erythrasma, and others) – the pathogen is pathogenic fungi, characterized by a chronic course;
viral (herpes, warts, and others) – the causative agent is viruses that are characterized by a chronic course;
purulent (phlegmons, abscesses, carbuncles, etc.) – the pathogen is pathogenic bacteria, accompanied by large subcutaneous foci;
pustular (staphyloderma, streptoderma and others) – pathogens are staphylococci and streptococci, accompanied by multiple small pustules;
allergic (dermatitis, urticaria, eczema, erythema, and others) – the development of the disease begins after exposure to the allergen;
parasitic (demodicosis, scabies, pediculosis) – organisms include parasitic insects such as bed bugs, ticks, lice and mites;
cancer (melanoma, basalioma and others) – the causative agent is not precisely installed.
An inflammatory and irritating process on the child’s skin that occurs when there is insufficient air circulation and moisture accumulation. Symptoms: rash, blisters, redness and inflammation of the skin, in advanced cases: cracks and wounds, suppuration. Mild-this is one of the most common childhood ailments, which is treated by adjusting the child care program. Dermatitis complicated by an infectious disease requires the use of ointments and antibiotics.
Most often, the disease occurs due to prolonged stay in tight diapers or diapers. A humid environment without air supply stimulates the reproduction of pathogenic organisms that cause skin infections. Usually, diaper dermatitis is observed on the buttocks, lower abdomen, and perineum of the child-the places that the diaper covers.
Factors that increase diaper dermatitis:
- prolonged wearing of clothing and diapers that prevent skin respiration;
- prolonged skin contact with urine and feces;
- rare bathing of a child.
It is established that often diaper dermatitis occurs with a complication-a fungal infection that affects the skin.
The main symptoms
Characteristic symptoms of skin diseases are the following:
- appearance of nodules, rashes, redness and other signs of skin disorders;
- an itch that is getting stronger with the development of the disease;
- burning and tingling sensation;
- the appearance of scales on damaged areas of the skin.
Local symptoms of diseases may vary. Almost all dermatological diseases are accompanied by insomnia, which occurs as a result of discomfort, itching and burning.
Children’s atopic dermatitis
Is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by genetic features. Therefore, the risk of developing this disease is higher in children whose close relatives suffer from atopy.
Factors that increase atopic dermatitis:
- increased sensitivity of the skin to external factors;
- disorders of the nervous system;
- infectious diseases of the skin;
- Smoking tobacco in the presence of a child;
- high content of colorants and flavor enhancers in baby food;
- use of cosmetics that are not suitable for child care;
- bad ecology.
This dermatitis most often affects children under 12 years of age, in older age the disease is extremely rare. With atopy, children’s skin becomes very dry, begins to peel and become covered with spots. Most often, the rash is localized on the neck, elbow bends, face, and knees. The disease has a wave-like course, periods of exacerbation are replaced by long-term remissions.